From the graph, 24 out of 50 students slept at 0100-0200. Only 5 of them could sleep at 2200-2359. 23% of the males who had a planning habit slept at 0000-0059, and 54% of them slept at 0100-0200. 28% of the males who did not have a planning habit slept at 0000-0059, and 44% of them slept at 0100-0200. 58% of the females had a planning habit slept at 0000-0059and all females who did not have a planning habit slept later than 0059. 86% of them slept at 0100-0200 and 14% 25% of females who had planning habit slept in this period. 50% of the females had a planning habit slept at 0000-0059.6 students chose others and the sleeping time of them were later than 0200.
The distribution of sleeping time of males was similar between the two groups, with planning habit and without planning habit. However, most of the females who had a planning habit could sleep earlier than the females who did not have a planning habit. There is a gender difference in the result. Planning habit affected females in their sleeping time more than males. As females may want to finish the job before they sleep but males prefer to sleep and leave the job to the next day.
Only 3 students felt that they always had too much time, and they all did not have planning habit and 4 male students felt frequently. 14 students felt sometimes, which included 10 males and 4 females. 10 students felt rarely, 5 of them were male and 5 were female. 19 of them felt never, included 10 males and 9 females. There were different trends between two genders in the feeling of too much time. For males, who had a planning habit were more likely to feel having too much time than who did not have. However, it was opposite for females.
Females who had a planning habit felt having too much time less frequently than those who did not have a planning habit. This result showed that males and females who had a planning habit felt differently towards having too much time. The reason may be the different attitudes of planning. Males may feel relax after finishing a task in their plan when the females still concern about other tasks. Therefore, females were less frequently to feel having too much time than males. According to Macan (1990), there are four factors affecting the effectiveness of performance and stress.
Four factors included: establishing the goal and priorities, conventional time managements methods, mindset in the control of time, and preference for disorganization. We set a questionnaire base on this idea and made some arrangements. Firstly, we assume that every interviewee had prioritized the activities in their minds no matter they have planning habit or not and asked the interviewees to fill in their priorities. Secondly, we thought that preference of disorganization is irrelevant to our survey and eliminated from the questionnaire. We only focusing on the effects of time management and the perception of control of time.
Effect of time management In order to investigate the effects of time management, we are looking to effect in proximal variable which is the accuracy of time prediction and the actual performance which is the grade point average. And also, there is different base numbers of students various groups, we found that using percentage to represent the proportion of students could have a more obvious result. Accuracy of time estimation We have interviewed students for the actual time and expected time spending on different activities. The activities include study, leisure, family meeting and social gathering.
We compared the time in order to find out the number of students who could meet the scheduled time successfully. In the survey to males who have planning habit, 23% students met the expected time spent on studying. 38% of students achieved the expected time spent on entertainments which is same percentage as social gathering. 31% of students could accomplish their expected time spending on family meeting. Compared to males without planning habit, the percentage slightly rose to 33% in studying but we got contrary result in entertainment, the percentage dropped slightly to 33%.
In the time communicating with their family members and friends, the percentages rose rapidly to 55% in both areas. Summarizing the result, we found that males without planning habit have a higher ratio in all areas except the entertainment. This result indicates that the conventional time management methods couldn’t help the males to control the time. In the hypothesis that males and females have similar working efficiency, males must relied on others things to control the time spent. Strang(1981) suggested that males’ rate of progress depended on the value of time controlling which means the actual time spent easily affected by atmosphere.
Males can meet the targeted time when they think that time is under control. In the survey to female interviewees who have planning habit, there is an increasing tendency in the activities, the percentages are 17%, 33%, 50% and 70% respectively. Compared to female interviewees who haven’t any planning habit, same percentages of students could meet their expected time in studying and family meeting and also there are same percentages of students spent the time as same as their expected time in entertainment and social gathering.
They are 14% and 43% respectively. In the two groups of female, students who have planning habit had higher percentages in all activities except the entertainment, this result is contradict to the male. This result is similar to the finding from Strang(1981) that the ability of control the time helped females to finish the work at scheduled time. Academic performance For the male group, 8% of the males with planning habit had GPA lower than 2, both percentages of them having GPA between 2 and 3 and between 3 and 4 were 46%.
Also, males without planning habit had GPA between 2 and 3 and between 3 and 4 were equal. For the female group, 33% of the females with a planning habit had GPA between 2 and 3, while 67% of them had GPA between 3 and 4. About 29% of the females without a planning habit had GPA between 2 and 3, and 71% left had GPA between 3 and 4. From the graph, we found that the distribution of GPA among students with planning habits and those without planning was very similar, for both male and female group. It could not show any relationship between having planning habit and the academic performance.
The results between planning habit and GPA could not support our hypothesis, which is time management leading to a greater academic performance. According to the study done by Jamie C. Denlinger, students enrolled in demanding majors had a greater academic performance level because they had a higher level of time management. However, the result from our survey could not show a direct correlation between time management and GPA. Students’ GPA had a very similar range, which was between 2 to 4. There may be some other factors which could affect students’ GPA, such as students’ intelligent, different subjects, different goals etc.
A research done by Michelle Richardson, Charles Abraham and Rod Bond suggested that there were 5 factors which may affect students’ GPA, including personal traits, motivational factors, self-regulatory learning strategies, approaches to learning and psychosocial contextual influences. That may explain why students’ performance were similar between having a planning habit and not have a planning habit. Therefore, we could not concluded that there were any relationship between time management and GPA based on data collected.
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