“A critical theory of hegemony directs attention to questioning the prevailing order of the world. ”(Bieler, Morton, pg 82) One of the most famous theorists of Neo Gramscanism is Robert Fox. His contribution towards the formation of conceptual frame work is immense. According to his ideological frame work “Hegemony a form of dominance but it refers more to a consensual order. ”(Bieler, Morton, pg 82)According to him society, economy, physical environment, cultural background ideological frame work develops the thoughts and actions and their dominance.
Hegemony is the concept developed by Gramsci and followed by many like Cox.
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY AND SECURITY: The domain of International relations that is best defined by the concept of critical theory is security. According to Hoffman “Critical Theory provides the next step for development of International relations theory. ”(Hoffman, 244)The major focus of critical theorist is military in terms of security but it is comprehensive.
The three main areas of concern in critical theory for security studies are security, strategy and practice. The focus on security in critical thinking is an attempt towards counter hegemony measures and contribution toward emancipative movements. EMANCIPATION: The concept of emancipation is the prime focus of critical thinking. ” Emancipation is arguably the one common concern of all critical theorists. It is the sine qua non of their thought.
”(Jones, pg 56) Despite the fact of various differences in critical theorist, it is fact that emancipation and release from social, political, cultural boundaries have general consensus. According to Brooner, “Critical Theory is cluster of themes inspired by emancipation. ” It gives coherence and purpose to the theme of critical theory. It is also mention worthy that emancipation is the process of lessening the restrictions those we imposed on ourselves and sometimes these restrictions are imposed by society, culture and society.
RADICAL DEMOCRACY: Radical democracy and democratic constitutional achievement is no the mean of social transformation. According toHabermass define democracy as the unfinished project of modernity. Role of democracy in relation with public delibralization is among important concerns of critical inquiry. Critical theory and globalization are the concern of modern researchers. The concept of different theorist related to democracy and globalization varies like Cox “emphasizes the paucity and fragility of a globalize liberal democracy.
David Held’s concern is with its territorial and national form which other aspects of globalization may be rendering anachronistic. ” (Eschle, 2000).
FEMINISM: Feminism believes in the fact that women see the realities, miseries, facts and social actors differently in a unique social context than men and therefore have a different vision and their definition of reality is far different than men’s definition of reality and consequences and forces that shape those realities. Feminism desires to create a better world for females and for men too.
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