Stages of Development Psychology Discussion

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A9 Discussion – Chapter 9

Step 1: Read

Read Section 9.3 Stages of Development in the Openstax textbook.

Link to assigned reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/9-3-stages-of-development

Step 2: Activity

Watch the following Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I

Reference:

Baker, M. (2010, Dec. 16). Harlow’s studies on Dependency in Monkeys (Video). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I.

Step 3: Discussion

Respond to the following:

Which surrogate mother formed a more secure attachment with the baby monkey? What are the implications of the research findings?

What are the two things Bowlby said are needed for a healthy attachment between a parent and child? Provide an example of a behavioral characteristic associated with each attachment style identified by Bowlby (secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized).

Your discussion must include the following for full credit:

  • The initial post is required to be a minimum of 100 words in length.
  • It is required to include at least two key terms from the chapter. Please highlight the key terms in your post.
  • It is required to include an APA formatted reference to the textbook and an intext citation. Please see course resources for more detailed guidance on APA format.
    • Reference Example:
      Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Openstax. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/9-3-stages-of-development
      Intext citation example:
      “A secure base is a parental presence that gives the child a sense of safety as he explores his surroundings” (Spielman et al., 2020, Section 9.3 Stages of Development, para. 35).
  • Reply my classmate’s post:

“The mother that provided love and comfort had a more secure attachment with the baby monkey in the experiment. This demonstrates that providing comfort, companionship, and love plays an instrumental role in attachment, above even providing food (Baker, 2010).

In order to grow a healthy attachment between a parent and child, researcher John Bowlby stated that two things were needed, “The caregiver must be responsive to the child’s physical, social, and emotional needs; and the caregiver and child must engage in mutually enjoyable interactions” (Spielman et al., 2020, Section 9.3 Stages of Development, para. 34). Various attachment styles were identified by Bowlby, ranging from secure, which is the healthiest, to other less healthy types like avoidant, resistant, and disorganized. Children with secure attachments exhibit behavior like viewing their caretakers as a protective figure that they can rely on to calm stress (Spielman et al., 2020, Section 9.3 Stages of Development, para. 37). On the other hand, avoidant types are less reliant and reactive to their parental figures. Resistant types are clingy, while also avoiding and disregarding parental figures. Disorganized attachments are, as implied by the name, very erratic. These children were very volatile and unable to control themselves, which Bowlby saw as a result of their unfortunate attachment. These adverse types can result from uninvolved parenting styles and other various parenting problems.

Baker, M. (2010, Dec. 16). Harlow’s studies on Dependency in Monkeys (Video). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I.

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Openstax. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/9-3-stages-of-development

AB9: Topic: Decision Making

Step 1: Read

The Hienz Delima

In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it.” So, Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1969, p. 379)

Spielman et al (2020) Section 9.2

Step 2: Activity

Step A: Answer the following question

How would you answer this dilemma? Explain the reasoning behind your answer.

Step B: Read Section 9.2: Theory of Moral Development. Review the three levels of moral reasoning identified by Kholberg in Figure 9.6 of the Openstax textbook.

Step 3: Discussion

Respond to the following questions in the discussion:

What level and stage of reasoning did you use to answer the dilemma?

Read Kohlberg’s statement below.

“Kohlberg placed in the highest stage responses that reflected the reasoning that Heinz should steal the drug because his wife’s life is more important than the pharmacist making money. The value of a human life overrides the pharmacist’s greed” (Spielman et al., 2022, Section 9.2 Lifespan Theories, para. 26).

Do you agree with Kohlberg’s statement? Explain why you do or do not agree.

Reference:

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Openstax. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/9-2-lifespan-theories

Your posted response must be a minimum of 100 words.

A10. Discussion (Chapter 10): Emotion and Motivation

Part 1: Read

Read pages 352 through 359 of Chapter 10 of the Openstax textbook (Emotions and Motivation). Pay particular attention to the Limbic System and the role of each part (hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus) in a person’s emotional expression.

Link to assigned reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/10-1-motivation

Part 2: Activity

Work through the Open Colleges interactive 3D brain stimulator (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/bparts1) for a refresher on the brain’s parts and their functions. Specifically explore the limbic system (The brain’s emotional circuit).

Reference:

Opencollege (2013). Your brain map: Strategies for accelerated learning. http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/learning-strategies/

Part 3: Discussion

Respond to the following:

Compare and contrast the theories of emotion discussed in chapter 10 (James-Lange Theory/Canon-Bard Theory/Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory).

Which theory do you think best explains emotional responses and why? Provide an example from your own personal experiences to support your response.

Your discussion must include the following for full credit:

  • The initial post is required to be a minimum of 100 words in length.
  • It is required to include at least two key terms from the chapter. Please highlight the key terms in your post.
  • It is required to include a APA formatted reference to the textbook and an intext citation. Please see course resources for more detailed guidance on APA format.
    • Reference Example:
      Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Openstax. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/10-1-motivation
      Intext citation example:
      “Our motivations are often a mix of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors” (Spielman et al., 2020, Section 10.1 Motivation, para. 3).
  • Reply a classmate’s post:

AB10: Step 1: Read

Read pages 336 through 338 in Chapter 10 of the Openstax textbook.

Link to reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/10-1-motivation

Step 2: Activity

Check out this interactive exercise (https://www.wisc-online.com/learn/social-science/p…) that illustrates some of the important concepts in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Reference:

WISC-Online. (n.d.). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs exercise. Retrieved January 13, 2022 from, https://www.wisc-online.com/learn/social-science/psychology/i2p401/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-exercise

Step 3: Discussion

Respond to the following:

Maslow suggested a person must satisfy lower-level needs in the pyramid before addressing those needs that occur higher on the pyramid. Do you agree? Provide an example to explain and support your answer.

A11: Week 11 Discussion: Traits

Part 1: Read

Read pages 389 through 394 of Chapter 11 the Openstax textbook (Section 11.7 Traits Theorists).

Link to assigned reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/11-1-what-is-personality

Part 2: Activity

Part A – Personality Assessment

To find out about your personality and where you fall on the Big Five traits, follow this website link http://openstaxcollege.org/l/big5 to take the Big Five Personality test.

Please note: The personal questions are optional, and answers are not required to view assessment results.

Alternative Link (Right click on the link and choose “open”): https://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/

Part B – Video

Accuracy of personality tests Med School Insiders https://youtu.be/1ycNtfy1f34?t=56

Alternative Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=56&v=1ycNtfy1f34&feature=youtu.be

Reference:

Med School Insiders (2019, July 6). Are personality tests accurate: This one is & here’s why you should do it [Video]. YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ycNtfy1f34&t=56s.

Part 3: Discussion

Respond to the following.

Describe your experience taking the Big Five Personality test (Please note you are NOT required to share results of the test or personal information, only share what is appropriate for an academic setting). Do you think this assessment is accurate and valid?

How stable do you think the Big Five traits over time? Explain why you think traits are stable or if not, how a particular trait might change over time. Support your answer with an example.

Your discussion must include the following for full credit:

  • The initial post is required to be a minimum of 100 words in length.
  • It is required to include at least two key terms from the chapter. Please highlight the key terms in your post.
  • It is required to include an APA formatted reference to the textbook and an intext citation. Please see course resources for more detailed guidance on APA format.
    • Reference Example:
      Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Openstax. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/11-7-trait-theorists
      Intext citation example:
      “Trait theorists believe personality can be understood via the approach that all people have certain traits” (Spielman et al., 2020, Section 11.7 Trait Theorists, para. 1).

AB11: Step 1: Read

Read pages 385 through 386 in Chapter 11 the Openstax textbook (Julian Rotter and Locus of Control).

Link to reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/11-4-learning-approaches

Step 2: Activity

View the following video:

To view the marshmallow test given to children in Columbia, follow the link to Joachim de Posada’s TED Talks (http://oenstaxcollege.org/l/TEDPosada) video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0yhHKWUa0g

Reference:

TED. (2009, August 10). Don’t eat the marshmallow [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0yhHKWUa0g

Step 3: Discussion

Respond to the following:

How did the marshmallow test support Walter Mischel’s “Person-Situation” Theory?

Each discussion response is required to be a minimum of 100 words in length.

A12: Topic-Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience

Step 1: Read

Read pages 421 through 428 in Chapter 12 of the Openstax textbook (Section 12.4)

Link to reading: https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/12-4-conformity-compliance-and-obedience

Step 2: Activity

Watch one or both of the following videos of the Asch experiment:

Link 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-qlJqR4GmKw

Reference:

Freescoring. (2007, April, 19). Conformity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qlJqR4GmKw

Summary: An experiment on the extent that people tend to conform to a group

Link 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyDDyT1lDhA&feature=youtu.be

Reference:

HeroicImaginationTV. (2012, February 20). Asch Conformity Experiment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyDDyT1lDhA

Summary: Phillip Zimbardo narrated the classic Asch conformity study. The video demonstrated that individual is more likely to conform to the popular opinion when uncertain.

Step 3: Discussion

Post an answer to the following questions

What do you think is going through the participant’s head when he purposely chose the wrong answer?

Give an example of a situation where people might have engaged in group conformity.

Your response is required to be a minimum of 100 words in length for full credit.