500 word summary | PSYCH221 PERSONALITY THEORIES | American Public University

  

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Assignment Instructions

The Learning Reflection Journal is a compilation of weekly learning reflections you’ll independently write about across Weeks 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7. During each of the assigned weeks, you will write two paragraphs, each 300 words in length (i.e., 600 words total). The first paragraph will describe a topic that you found particularly interesting during that week and what made it interesting, and the second paragraph will describe something that you have observed occurring in the real world that exemplified that topic. Only one topic may be recorded in the journal for each assigned week and your observed real word occurrence must be clearly related to it.

In week 7, these five journal entries will be submitted together, merging these weekly experiences into a single document. The summary document should conclude with an additional two summary paragraphs (500 hundred words in length), integrating your thoughts and insights about the experience.

This is WEEK 2,3,5,6,7 WHICH IS ALREADY DONE. I ONLY NEED TWO SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS (500) WORDS

Week 2 Learning Reflection Journal

During my reading for week 2, Erik Erikson eight stages of development seemed to have caught most of my attention. Erikson did not theorize these stages, and he drew upon Sigmund Freud basic theories. There were very few theorists who addressed personality changes in old age. Erik Erikson was one of the few personality theorists who addressed the entire lifespan. Life expectancy continues to grow in our country, there are so many more older people than ever before. Sigmund Freud indicated that there were five distinct stages of Psychosexual development, and that children experienced psychological development within the framework of a series of set stages. What made this very interesting to me is that Erik Eriksons knew Sigmund Freud personally and was trained in psychoanalysis by Anna Freud. Anna did not believe he was true to Freud’s theories and rejected his work, because he shifted from psychosexual stages to psychosocial crises and because of his extension of them throughout the lifespan. This part was very interesting to me, because it got me to thinking more about personality on this part. I felt you really had to have a very strong personality to be rejected by someone who you trusted and believed in who trained you on a subject you dedicated your life to.

Many of us are familiar with Erikson’s eight staged of life, but what is not so known is each stage is tied to specific, basic social institutions and a particular strength, which Erikson believed gave the individual a “semblance of Instinctive certainty in his social ecology” (Erikson, 1968a). The first stage, Infancy-Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust-Hope. Second stage Early Childhood – Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt – Will. Stage three Play Age – Initiative vs. Guilt – Purpose. Stage four School Age-Industry vs. Inferiority – Competence. Stage five Adolescence-Identity vs. Role Diffusion, Confusion-Fidelity: Stage six, Young Adulthood- Itimacy vs. Isolation – Love: Stage seven, Adulthood – Generativity vs. Stagnation, Self-Absorption – Care: Stage eight, Old Age – Integrity vs. Despair – Wisdom:

Erik Erikson’s theory of how people think and treat each other development is very important, highly looked on and a relevant concept. Life is full of constant lessons and challenges which all helps us to grow. Erikson’s great theory helps to tell us all why. In today’s society, I truly know and believe that his theory is very helpful for child development, and adults too. I truly agree with Erik Erikson’s  theory that an individual’s personality is developed over the entire course of one’s life span, from birth to death. I have a friend who use to be an introvert, really laid back and to himself which actually worked perfectly for the career he was in.  He was a truck driver for Miller Genuine Draft which was minimum interaction with people. He would actually go into stores and setup beer stands and have minimum interaction with anyone, other than the dropping off of merchandise to the customer. He was a very hard worker and always had really great rapport with the customer. Then he changed careers and became a salesman for Miller Genuine Draft, which forced him to become an extrovert. He stated being a salesman forced him to come out of his introvert ways, because he had to be more social and interactive to gain the customer trust. He also still had to be an introvert because he really had to have the skills to be able to listen to what the customer was actually saying. Personality is often shown through your behavior as an adult or a child.  I know we all are shaped into our personality at a young age, however; as we age we experience lots of different things learning new things and experiencing life lessons, hurt and losses which ultimately sometimes alters our personality. I know some people who have the same personality they had when they were kids, which I consider being stuck. I can speak for myself when it comes to your personality changing over a life span. I can say I have always had a very strong personality even when I was in my early 20’s. The difference between my early 20’s and now me being 50, my personality is still very strong, however; it is a strong but very calming personality. I believe for some of us as we age we do mature and think differently and reflect on the things and actions when we were younger, which ultimately makes us wiser and much better. I am almost sure my personality will continue to change throughout the rest of my life journey. 

references:

Kelland, M. (2017, July 07). Personality Theory. OER Commons. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/22859-personality-theory.

Week Three Journal Reflection: Reciprocal Determinism

Topic Description

The concept of human behavior requires an integrated approach to explaining human beings’ actions. Therefore the author (Kelland, 2017) acknowledges Bandura’s effort in that individual learning response from observing other people and accepting rewards and punishment that people receive. The concept leads to a modem perspective of social learning. Therefore in the topic reading, I acknowledge the topic of Reciprocal Determinism in appreciating psychological concerns in the knowledge of behavior. The subject provides fundamental views of Bandura on learning of the practice where each individual is an agent of personality leading to behavior and action. According to the author, specific conditions and environments interact to influence behavior in personalized learning. The topic offers three leading associations in resulting response due to interlocking interceptions. The reading establishes the concept in behavior components, individual components, and the environmental aspect, which shapes behavior and influences personal traits explanations. The behavior components in the topic provide the control of expression through the cognitive process, environmental, and external social stimuli. The author expounds on the idea to provide personal disposition, and results such as punishment and reward cause a behavior (Kelland, 2017. The environmental components consist of physical surroundings of individuals encompassing reinforcing stimuli such as people present or absent thus, influencing action just like behavior components. According to the topic reading, individual components include the characteristics of the past reward. In the sector, personality, cognitive process, and personal expectations and beliefs affect resulting action. Therefore, the topic provides a detailed evaluation of reciprocal determinism in personality doctrine explanations. However, according to Bandura, the concern of behavior, individual and environment works interactively and determinant in personality explanation domains (Geukes, Zalk & Back, 2019). Thus, the topic is interesting since it establishes functional interaction between environment, individual and behavior, and central domains of personality to explain behavior learning.

Real-World Simulation 

A parent who does not like the relationship may act out in the connection causing a negative influence on the other partner and related friends. The partners and friends may resort to altering the relationship goals to accommodate the acting out partners. The aspects of behavioral elements resulting from cognitive process and external social interactions influence the partner’s relationship, goals, and achievements. Therefore the acting out partners suggest behavioral components manipulating the environment forcing adjustments for accommodations. Consequently, if the other friend and partners decided to become physically aggressive on the misbehaving partners, the effect does not only present an adverse behavior on the acting out partners but also environmental and physical components. For instance, arising arguments may result in chaos, and noise influences the ecological elements. Therefore the case the stage nest explains the environment components in the reciprocal determine. The aspects of reciprocal establishing include individual, behavior, and environmental perspective on the disturbed partners in a relationship that results in an interactive influence in action. In the first place, the individual does not like the link and acts out in response to the behavioral aspects. The partners and friend act are creating reinforcement and a hostile environment for the misbehaving partner and the defending friends.  The real-world example provides a practical evaluation of the topic relating to the elements of individual behavior and the context in controlling behavior. Therefore, dislike of the relationship, acting out partners, the other partners and friends ‘action lading to interlocking of behavior, individual and environmental aspects.

                                                                                                                                                                 References

Geukes, G., Zalk, M., and   Back, M. (2018). Understanding personality development: An integrative state process model. International Journal of Behavioral Development. DOI: 10.1177/0165025416677847

Kelland, M. (2017). Personality Theory. Common Open Education Resources. Retrieved on May 21, 2020, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/22859-personality-theory/13/view

WEEK 5 JOURNAL  REFLECTION: PERSONALITY THEORY

Personality is the way human beings are characterized by their behaviors. Individuals are described by their characters, for example, on how one reacts to a situation (Guntrip, 2018). The reaction is, therefore, determined by their personalities. An individual’s behavior is inclined to what they believe in. Personality theories help us in understanding, explaining, and predicting the behavior of an individual in case of an event that requires one to react. People have different personalities, and the theories guide us to know the real behavior of someone. Therefore, the argument is a guide to action. For example, we end up figuring out that specific patterns of events that have occurred before are likely to occur after. Personality theory is the most interesting because it is one crucial topic of interest in psychology. Professionals try to identify the behavior of someone with their personalities by analyzing the sequences and patterns of their daily life occurrences.

           Major personalities are categorized into four significant perspectives, and each of them will try to describe the different patterns in character. The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes experiences in early childhood and the unconsciousness of the mind. Personality is influenced by the unconscious mind, and it can be through dreams and a slip of the tongue. The humanistic perspective focuses on personal awareness and psychological growth. People are motivated by their human needs based on the more important ones (Bland, & DeRobertis, 2020). The trait perspective centers on identifying the traits that define an individual’s personality. The specific characteristics of an individual’s help us to comprehend the difference among individuals. This sums up to show that individuals are not the same and are guided by their traits. Lastly, the perspective of social-cognitive emphasizes on the importance of learning by observation and situational influences.

           As a person grows from childhood to adulthood, they are faced with different conflicts of biological drives and moral conscience (Ammaniti, 2016). The child’s ability to solve such internal issues reflects on their destiny. For example, a child should learn and understand ways to control sexual urges and needs. Failure to do so will need to stagnation in that stage, leading to an unhealthy personality. In the current society, a lot of adults have been charged with rape accusations. Such behaviors can be based on the inability of an adult not going through stages of growth. These personalities are a result of the unconscious mind. The hierarchy of needs determines the humanistic perspective personality of an individual. The basic needs of an individual revolve around food, clothing, and housing, however, as people move up the hierarchy, interests, and needs change. For example, in society, people are after their selfish gains.  Most politicians are involved in corrupt activities because of their unlimited wants. Therefore, their personalities are reflected by selfish interests.

           Individuals have different personality traits; some can be talkative and energetic, while others can be sympathetic (Diener, & Lucas, 2018). Sympathy is a good trait because an individual can decide to help the needy. Most of the children’s homes in society are funded by sympathizers who give out donations as a form of funding. Also, some, through their traits, offer to adopt street children and treat them as their own, for example, by providing a roof and schooling them. Individual’s personalities differ based on their observational learning. Some individuals prefer to learn through observations and make their conclusions. There has been a lot of cases of police brutality. Most of the police have been judged by the murdering of citizens in society. This has led to protests and demonstrations. The observation shows that society cannot tolerate the killings of good citizens. An individual can, therefore, learn and make conclusions through such views. This kind of personality is vital as it enables one to avoid crossing paths with the police in danger zones.

Reference

Ammaniti, M. (2016). Psychodynamic and Neurobiological Perspectives on Personality Disorders during Adolescence. Adolescent Psychiatry, 6(1), 5.

Bland, A. M., & DeRobertis, E. M. (2020). Humanistic perspective. Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences, 2061-2079.

Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2018). Personality traits.

Guntrip, H. Y. (2018). Personality structure and human interaction: The developing synthesis of psychodynamic theory. Routledge.

WEEK 6 JOURNAL REFLECTION

Experiences’ Power to Influence Personality

           Personality development is greatly influenced by a person’s early experiences in life as well as adulthood experiences. Because, the way a person thinks, feels, and behaves is determined by how he/she related to others in life early as well as how others think and what they say about the person. For example, the way Horney’s father used to take his family out sailing as a successful sailor it had a significant impact on Horney’s personality as she ended up loving to travel as well as developing an interest in foreign customs. Also, Horney’s personality for fighting for women’s rights came about because of her early experiences regarding how society throught her father did not value women’s education (Kelland, 2017). She sees that a woman’s development is greatly influenced by social customs surrounding her. What makes this topic interesting is the way minor childhood experiences that people put less emphasis on have a great chance of determining who a person will be in the future. Therefore, people should direct more energy in developing desirable personality in children from their younger ages.

           It is indisputable that there are some personal experiences that one goes through in the real world and end up shaping the person’s personality forever. It is also important to note that as humans, people keep altering their personalities as they meet other people. This is because they will be listening to what other people say about them hence giving them a chance to change their personality. This means that one’s personality is greatly influenced by both childhood experiences as well as adulthood experiences. For example, in the real world, a person who is constantly loved by his/her parents will grow up being a loving person simply because his/her personality will have been shaped by the parents. Also, an adult who receives negative comments about his/her behavior will eventually change hence changing his/her personality for a greater good. Therefore, the issue of that personality is influenced by experiences is not only found in books but also in real life.

Reference

Kelland, M. (2017). Personality Theory.

Week 7 Journal Reflection

Cultural Influence on Personality

          Personality is the way a person is defined through a combination of aspects such as behavior, feelings, motivation, and personal thinking patterns. It is important to note that a person’s culture has a greater chance of influencing his/her personality from birth to death. Culture is seen as features and knowledge of a specific group of people and usually encompasses aspects including but not limited to social habits, language, music, religion, and cuisine. It is essential to identify that in Africa, hospitality is something that should be shown to everyone, even if the person is a stranger (Kelland, 2017). This is because African culture demand that to be done; by far, this will impact profoundly on someone’s personality as the society will have taught the person to be hospitable to other people. Also, as a family is a miniature society, it represents the society in the development of personality in people. This topic is impressive, mainly because it provides a close connection between society and an individual’s personality.

          As society has enough power to determine someone’s personality, it is essential to note that where there is a rebellious person, then it means his/her society brought him/her that way hence deducing that the society is rebellious will is valid. This is not a thing that is only found in books, but it is with the people in the society. In Africa, some communities have continuously been involved in cattle raiding for decades now (King, 2017). It is crucial to identify that these communities value cattle a great deal. It is the society that tells its people that for them to survive and show that they are the best, they will have to steal cattle from neighboring communities. This, by far, shows how there is a perfect connection between how personality is greatly influenced by culture and society. The society dictates to its people, the way to behave in the social context to survive.

Reference

Kelland, M. (2017), The Role of Culture in Personality Theory.

King, R. (2017). Cattle, raiding and disorder in Southern African history. Africa, 87(3), 607-630.           

The grading rubric below details specific grading criteria.

  

Learning   Reflection Journal
100 %

 

Introduction
15 %

Exemplary 

   Introduction which very clearly summarizes the major points to be covered in   the paper. Topic sentence is well developed. 

 

5 Weeks of Weekly Journal Entries
  50 %

Exemplary 

   Five distinct weeks of journal entries (minimum 600 words in length for   each), well written, including a paragraph completely describing what weekly   content you found interesting (and why) and one paragraph linking that   content to a real-world experience of your own. 

 

Summarizing Paragraphs
  25 %

Exemplary 

   Two summary paragraphs (minimum 500 words) which very clearly and   thoughtfully synthesize the weekly reflections, distilling themes and   summative observations from the experience. Sources are credited and cited   appropriately. 

 

Format/Writing
  10 %

Exemplary 

   Work is presented in a logical and coherent way. Writing is clear,   articulate, and error free. Citations are composed in proper format with few   or no errors. The student uses a preponderance of original writing (i.e., use   of own words and proper paraphrasing) and uses direct quotations minimally   and only when necessary/or appropriate.

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