important Essay

INTI International College PenangSchool of Engineering and Technology

3+0 Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Computer Science, in collaboration with Covnote University, UK

3+0 Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Computing, in collaboration with Covnote University, UK

Courseexertion screen sheet

Section A – To be adequated by the student

Full Planate:


CU Student ID Sum:





Assignment No. / Title: Portfolio 1A 25% of Module Impression

Hand quenched limit: 14/1/18

Due limit: 3/2/19

Penalties: No deceased exertion obtain be not spurious.

If you are weak to succumb courseexertion on duration due to extenuating case you may be capconducive ce an production. Please deliberebuke the lecturer.

Declaration: I/we the undersigned fixedtle that I/we feel decipher and coincide to rest by the University regulations on plagiarism and cheating and Faculty courseexertion policies and procedures. I/we fixedtle that this duty of exertion is my/our hold. I/we acquiesce to withhold storage of our exertion ce plagiarism checking.

Signature(s): ————————————–

Section B – To be adequated by the module leader

Intended erudition quenchedcomes assessed by this exertion:

Mould right of services supposing by the untrammelled regularity, such as sequence govern, perfect skillful-treatment, threading, retention skillful-treatment, emblem approximation.

Understand mechanisms underlying the coolness regularity and be conducive to right the besidesls associated with them.

Marking contrivance Max Impression




100 Lecturer’s Feedback

Internal Sequencerator’s Feedback

Lab Influenceivity 1 – LINUX Instruct Method (Commands and quenchedcomes from a train of weak tasks that exinfluence right of a sum of Linux instructs)

[1 impression each]ff

Mark the aftercited instructs

Provide screenshots

Explain the scope of the instructs


It is a instruct method to profession prevalent residuum directory.

(i) ls –lu

This instruct exclusive quenched most of-late folder by duration and chiefly rightd conjointly with instruct ls.

(ii) ls –X

This instruct exclusive quenched folder grounded on their production planate.

(iii) ls -lt

This instruct exclusive quenched folder consonantly by duration.

Mark the aftercited in sequence:

(i) mkdir Games

This instruct wholeows rightr to constitute a fantastic directory.

(ii) cd Games

This instruct establish rightrs to the inequiconsultation directory.

(iii) cd..

This instruct wholeows rightr to departure the anterior directory.

Mark the aftercited in sequence:

cat >test1

Follow up the aloft instruct by typing Hello Everyone

This instruct constitute a perfect planate test1 and wholeows rightr to invade their crave control. The passage obtain be written into test1.

cat > test2

Follow up the aloft instruct by typing Bye Everyone

This instruct constitute a perfect planate test2 and wholeows rightr to invade their crave control. The passage obtain be written into test2.

cat test1 > test2

This instruct is to aggravatetranscribe the penny resigned of test2 into test1 as the senior temperament goes from test1 to test2.

rm test1

Reactuate inequiconsultation perfects or directory

mv test2 Games

Actuate perfects or directory from sole assign to another.

Right a passage editor and mark the aftercited passage (designate the perfect as poem1)

My family’s doting of gadgetsand fantastic technology.My woman affects her radio.My father affects TV.My sister affects to dance aroundthe horight with headphones on.My twin plays on his PCuntil the burst of dawn.The baby has a smartphoneand a touchscreen-tablet besides.If we had pets, I’m surethat well-balanced they would feel a scant.We colloquy with flash messaging.We email and we passage.We’re constantly looking cewardto the gadconstruct we’ll construct instant.The issueiveness went quenched of-late.That day was affect no other.Our screens went bleak and, exceptional still penny,we talked to sole another.

Mark the instruct to merge poem1.txt to another pre-penny perfect

Merge 2 passage perfect’s resigned into sole.

Redesignate poem1.txt as poetry1.txt

Redesignate the perfect or directory.

Display the conclusive 10 methods of poetry1.txt

Constitute a directory planated tempstuff and influenceuate poetry1.txt from your exertioning directory to tempstuff directory

Delete poetry1.txt

Lab Influenceivity 2 – OS and APIs

Exculpation the aftercited questions:

Why do OS insufficiencys APIs. Illustrebuke your exculpation with a exemplification API rightd by Linux. [4 impressions]

API is so influential to untrammelled regularity becaright it influence as a tempdeceased ce developers. It to-boot wholeows untrammelled regularity and opposed software co-operebuke with each others.

Differentiate the aftercited: [2 impressions each]

In pulp APIs

Application Programming Interface(API) of a duty of software is how somesole is going to transcribe a program interacting with it.

In pulp ABIs

Application Binary Interface (ABI) of a duty of software is how compiled program interacts with it. Instant, it to-boot flow facts organizations or computational routines are approximationed in machine regulation.

Abstraction APIs

Abstraction API functionality to the library in a despatch layer and facts to a reloadconducive intent thus wholeowing palpable besidesling to mould right of these withquenched homogeneousness, indistinctness and withquenched them life tied quickly to the riches.

Lab Influenceivity 3 – Bootloader

Differentiate GNU GRUB and LILO in conditions of: [8 impressions]



Has appertaining instruct method interface. LILO wholeows sole instruct with dispute.

Excellent technical food. Meagre technical food

Fine documented. Tested and rightd widely.

Hard to portraiture Mould quenchedline automatically



Can food ample boot entries Rightrs may adopt which OS to boot

Conducive to impeach OS at opposed residuums or networks. Rightrs can portraiture fixedtings during boot up. What is bochs? What is rightd ce? [2 impressions]

Bochs is an opponent software that vitualize a adequate Intel x86 computer. It can traverse on a sum of platforms stance, x86, Sun, PPC, MIPS and Alpha.

Lab Influenceivity 4 – Quenchedside the Sequenceor [2 impressions each]

Mark the aftercited instructs. Explain the quenchedput.

ifconfig -a

Display the advice of your regularity’s netexertion interface.

netstat -i

Display netexertion interface ce twain transferring and receiving packets betwixt the affair.


This is a besidesl to transact DNS lookup. It obtain profession the details such as IP harangue.

dhclient eth0

Alestablish DNS dynamically

ifconfig eth0 – promisc

This instruct is to disconducive unassorted sequence, “promisc” is to switch the netexertion interface into typical sequence.

Lab Influenceivity 5 – OS Sequence Scheduling

Profession the scheduling classify ce the aftercited sequencees. Whole the sequencees enter in numerical classify at duration 0. Profession the scheduling classify ce:

[3 impressions each]


Shortest Job First

Round Robin (quantum = 1 duration item)

Lab Influenceivity 6 – Constructive Retention

Imagine that you’ve been asked to construct an untrammelled regularity ce a humble

embedded sequenceor. The sequenceor has no constructive retention and no retention

translation item. What functionality must you construct into your sequence impeacher if you

wish to feel multiple programs dweller in retention? [4 impressions]

To construct multiple program dweller in retention, some husk of harangue reresiduum you insufficiency to interest assign to assign the sequence onto a feature chunk of substantial retention.

In a regularity with constructive retention, how can you distribute retention betwixt couple sequencees? [4 impressions]

Retention betwixt couple sequencees can be distribute betwixt segments or page tconducive entities.

You feel been asked to plan an adaptive VM regularity. On a per-sequence premise, you must flow whether to swap the complete sequence in and quenched of retention or whether to simply demand-page it in. What statistics do you lack to infer to aid you mould this conclusion? [3 impressions]

The static I infered is sequence picture, exertioning fixed bulk, rebuke of modify of exertioning fixed. The ocean habit of approximationing the sequence picture is that the CPU comprises a consonant picture of the sequence illustriouss ce the opportunity of sole program cycle. If a illustrious aver on an input module modifys opportunity the program is life issueed, the illustrious aver in the sequence picture obtain be retained until the sequence picture is updated aconstruct in the instant cycle. The exertioning fixed bulk usually rightd ce tonnage planning & scalability segregation.

Lab Influenceivity 7 – Perfect Skillful-treatment [10 impressions]

The Berkeley Fast Perfectregularity (and Linux Ext2fs) right the conception of fill groups. Describe what this conception is and what improvements fill groups feel aggravate the humble perfectregularity layquenched of the Regularity V perfect regularity (s5fs).

Berkeley Fast Perfectregularity and ext2 creating fill groups to augment the Regularity V perfectsystem, everything were twin-fellow bulkd and replicating Regularity V organization. Group descriptors, inode bitmap, facts fill bitmap and inode tconducive was burst into groups. This elucidation solves numerous problems with s5fs and the well perfectregularity obtain no longer tainted by the restraintm of superblock.

What is the regard compute room in the inode? You should deem its analogy to directory entries in you exculpation.

The regard compute room may be a computeer of what sum durations the inode is “referenced” by planate. Supplementing a directory note increments this computeer. When the compute falls to nothing, its inode and every sole similar disk fills is safely trafficlocated.

Lab Influenceivity 8 – Pulp [2 impressions each]

The aftercited instructs wholeows interaction with the Linux pulp. Explain the scope of the instructs. Provide screenshots of project.


It displays which pulp modules are prevalently traversening.

insmod module

Projectile a humble program into Linux Pulp.

modprobe module

Used to supplement a (LKM) impeachconducive pulp module into Linux pulp or to reactuate sole.

rmmod module

Reactuate a module from the directory.

Explain the aftercited regulation:

# comprise < linux / module .h >

# comprise < linux / statement .h >

# comprise < linux / pulp .h >

static int __init init_mod ( emptiness ) /* Constructor */


printk ( KERN_INFO ” Module1 inaugurated … n “);

return 0;


static emptiness __departure object_mod ( emptiness ) /* Destructor */


printk ( KERN_INFO ” Module1 objected … n “);


module_init ( init_mod );

module_departure ( object_mod );

Lab Influenceivity 9 – Other Rightful Linux Instructs – 2 impressions each

Mark the instruct that rolls whole the jobs prevalently traversening

Find whole perfects with a perfectdesignate that starts with ‘p’.

Compress multiple directories

Constitute an alias instruct ce the instruct to constitute a directory

Transcribe a shell script that prints prevalent limit and duration and consummate it

Lab Influenceivity 10 – Retention Skillful-treatment

The buddy regularity is a retention skillful-treatment contrivance that rights variconducive bulkd perfectotments. Explain the basic element subsequently the buddy regularity. [4 impressions]

The buddy regularity rights binary sums as retention alresiduum that traverse on the premise becaright these may aid computer to manipudeceased faster.

If the perfectotment bulk and sequence bulk were not-alike then meagre tally interest assigns and should right interval in an feeble restraintm.

It obtain be further humble to tool than dynamic wholeocation.

Assume a computer with a retention bulk of 256K, initially emptiness. Entreats are common ce fills of retention of 5K, 25K, 35K and 20K. Profession how the buddy regularity would traffic with each entreat, professioning the retention layquenched at each extent and the standing of the rolls at the object. After wholeocating whole the sequencees, what would be the issue of the 25K sequence terminating and retiring its retention?

[6 impressions]

The issue of the 25K sequence terminating and retiring is 32K detached roll occupied by the retention (32K). The detached retention instant to its buddy should barely supplement up to 56K as the retention cannot be merged at this top. In classify to surrender 64K retention to its merge roll, it would exinfluence the retiring of the 8K sequence.


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